What is the Trachoma : Cause, Symptoms, Medication, Treatment


What is the Trachoma?

Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterial chlamydia trachomatis. The infection causes a roughening of the inner surface of the eyelid. This may cause pain in the roughening eyes, the outer surface or rupture of cornea, and ultimately blindness.

If untreated, repeated  infections can be a form of permanent blindness when the eyelids come inwards. Especially from the child to the child and the child to the baby up to the mother. This disease rises especially in the case of crowded people where there is lack of water, insufficient hygiene and where many eye-catching flies are present. In affected communities, children often have to face infection in childhood.

First of all, Can cause light irritation and irritation in your eyes and eyelids. Then you can see the inflammatory eyelids and the pull out from the eyes. Untreated trachoma can cause blindness.

Eye infection is caused by  clemidia trachomatis and it is the main cause of preventable blindness. Although it is very good in developed countries, but it is abundant in susceptible areas with limited access to clean water and health care. The main source of infection is the human cases of active trachoma.

The prevalence of active trachoma is the highest among pre-schooled children, and transition in children lasts longer than in adults, stating that small children make reservoirs for infection

Trachoma infection spread through infected flies and through contact with hands, clothes or bed; Because of this, it affects women and children unevenly. Disability can be the cause of poverty cycles, thereby limiting access to many people for healthcare, education and employment.

First of all, your eyes and eyes can cause light itching and irritation. Then you can see the semolina eyelashes and the pull out from the eyes. Untreated  can cause blindness.

The name of the state of blindness or blindness, can not be seen. The child who can not see the letters of his book can be said to be suffering from this condition. Blindness is also the name of this. From the inability to experience light, the impossible to do such work without seeing what can be seen, blindness is said.

How are Trachoma?

People living in close contact have greater risk of spreading infection.

This disease is primarily a disease of very poor population in developing countries.
How the hell grows.

Trachoma was known as ‘Sandy Blight’, and is associated with dry dry conditions for centuries. It is a disease of poverty and loss, which is in pocket where the situation of living is rush, water is rare, and sanitation is insufficient.

Trachoma is shared individually with unwanted hands, shared face-wipe clothes, and flies in contact with the infected person’s eyes or nose. Running infections and re-infection increase the progress of this disease to that stage where vision disappears.

Women tend to suffer more severely than more frequently than men. This is because women are usually taking care of small children, and come in contact with infected children again in transit. This is tragic because if the treatment is not done then the infection persists and it’s too late until it is too late, and blindness is irreversible.


The lips become on the inside pages of the eyelids. Each flower is red, glazed, similar to a rising grain, but when it is diluted, there is some gray or white color. These are round or flat and small, many types.

They do not have any order. From these pancas (opaque fibrils) arise and spread towards the center of the cornea. The cause is the spread of pathogenic virus. This condition usually occurs more in the upper half section of the cornea.


Trachoma disease is usually diagnosed clinically. People are tested for diagnostic signs through the use of magnesia (lops). In the earliest stages, the infection does not present visual indication of the disease. However, the repetition infection causes scarring of

conjunctiva and it is during this phase that the infected persons get a sense of irritation.

The WHO grading system for trachoma classifies illness in 5 grades:

• Trachomatous  Folicular (TF) – which mostly requires topical remedies.

• Trachomatous inflammation – acute (TI) – during which time is considered topical and systematic treatment.

• Trachomatous Scarring (TS) – When the traces are visible as tarsal conjunctiva and which tarsal blood vessels may become unclear.

• Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT) – When a person is referred to eyelid surgery; And
Cornell Opacity – A stage during which a person is irreversibly dark.


Trachoma is caused by chlamydia trachomatis, serotype (serovores) A, B, and C. It is transmitted by direct contact with the persons with the eyes, nose, and throat secretion, or contact with pharmaceuticals (move passive objects to infectious agents), such as towels and / or washing, whose contact with these secretions is in contact Was there.

Flies can also be a pathway to mechanical transmission. As a result of repeated untreated , the enpropion occurs (inverted blinking), resulting in blindness due to damage to the cornea. Children are susceptible to infection due to their tendency to be dirty, but adults do not often feel the effects of dark or more severe symptoms.

Blinding endemic tracoma occurs in poor personal and family hygiene areas. Many factors are indirectly associated with the presence of trachoma, in which the lack of water, the absence of toilets or toilets, generally includes poverty, flies, close proximity to cattle, crowds, and more. However, the last common path appears to be the presence of dirty faces in children, which facilitates frequent interaction of the infected ocular discharge from a child’s face. Most of the trachea is transmitted within the family.


Trachoma symptoms and symptoms usually affect both eyes and may include the following:

• Eyes and eyelashes light itching and burning

• Discharge with mucous or pulmonary eyes

• Inflammation of eyes

• Light sensitivity (photophobia)

• Eye pain

Young children are particularly susceptible to infection. But the disease progresses gradually, and more painful symptoms can not emerge until adults.

The World Health Organization has identified five phases in the development of trachoma:

• Swelling – follicular

The transition is only going on in this phase. Five or more follicles – Small bumps that contain lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell – appears with magnification on the inner surface of your upper eyelid (conservative).

• Swelling – Intense

In this phase, your eye is now highly contagious and becomes disturbed with the thickness of the upper eyelid or swelling.

• Eye marking Repeated transitions lead to internal eyelid traces. While checking with magnification the marks often appear as white lines. Your eyelid can be distorted and (intrusion) can be distorted.

• Increased eyelashes (trichiasis)

The horror of your eyelid is getting worse, causing your shine to turn on so that they can rotate and scratch the transparent outer surface of your eyes (cornea).

• Cornel Clouding The cornea gets affected by a swelling that is usually seen under your upper lid. Continuous swelling of scratches from inverted glow leads to cornea clouds.



Antibiotic azithromycin provides an ideal solution for active trachoma infection. It is available as an oral dose which can be easily distributed and thus, antibiotic resistance has not been seen as an issue. It has some side effects, is cost effective and works very well to eliminate the infection.

Patients with many infections may have a risk of visual disorder or blindness due to the turn of the eyelashes. Trichiasis surgery can be done to reverse the direction of eyelashes and can be used to prevent deterioration of vision. It also provides additional benefits of high quality of life for individuals.

The World Health Organization has targeted trachoma for the elimination of an innovative, versatile public health strategy by 2020 which is said to be safe:

• To correct the advanced, dark phase of the disease, surgery (trichiasis)

• Antibiotics to treat active infections,

• Cleaning the face and,

• Environmental improvement in water and sanitation areas to reduce disease transmission.

Comprehensive safe strategy combines active infections and remedies for treating trichiasis (S & A) with preventive measures to reduce disease infections (F & E). Implementation of the complete safe strategy in the local areas enhances the effectiveness of trachoma programs. SAFE’s F and E components, which reduce disease transmission, are particularly important for achieving sustainable eradication of trachoma.

In the safe strategy “F” refers to facial cleansing. Since trachoma is spread through close personal contact, it occurs in the cluster, which often infects entire families and communities. Children who are more likely to touch their eyes and have impure faces which attract eye-catching flies, are particularly vulnerable to infection, such as women, traditional home caregivers Therefore, promoting good hygiene practices such as wash hands and washing the faces of children at least once a day, water is an important step in breaking the cycle of trachoma transmission.

In the safe strategy “e” refers to environmental change. Improve community and domestic cleanliness, such as provision of home toilets, control fly population and breeding grounds. Increased access to water facilitates good hygiene practices and is important for achieving sustainable eradication of the disease.

Separation of animal quarters from human living space, as well as safe operation of food and drinking water, also affects environmental remedies which can take the affected communities to the tracheoma control program.


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