Polycythemia Vera: Reason, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Polycythemia Vera

What is Polycythemia Vera?

Polycythemia vera is an abnormal neoplasm in which the bone marrow creates too many red blood cells. As a result, white blood cells and platelets may be overuse.

When you have too many red blood cells, your blood becomes thick and slowly flows. Red blood cells can collide together and make clots inside your blood vessels.

If it is not treated, PV can lead to life-threatening complications. The blood which flows more slowly, can reduce the amount of oxygen reaching your heart, brain and other vital organs.

If the blood clot is deep in the veins of the hands and feet, then it is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVB). A DVT can sometimes go through the bloodstream to the lungs, which can cause pulmonary embolism and is very dangerous. A blood clot can also travel to the heart or brain, which increases the risk of heart attack or stroke.

The average age of people diagnosing polycythemia vera is 60-65 years. It is unusual in people under 40 years of age. Polycythemia vera develops more frequently in men. Most people with polycythemia do not have family history of this disease.

Symptoms?

People with polycythemia vera may be asymptomatic. A classic symptom of polycythemia vera is pruritus or itching, especially after exposure to hot water (such as while bathing), which may be due to abnormal histamine release or prostaglandin production.

In approximately 40% of patients, such scabies are present in polycythemia vera. Gouti arthritis may be present in 20% of patients. Peptic ulcer disease is also common in patients with polycystylemia vera; Most likely due to histamine growth from mast cells, but due to cysts, bacteria H. Sensitivity may increase for pylori infection.

Common symptoms of PV include:

1. Tiredness

2. itching

3. Trouble breathing on lying

4. Trouble concentrating

5. Unplanned Weight Loss

6. Pain in your stomach

As the disease grows and your blood gets thicker with more red blood cells, more serious symptoms can appear.

Reason?

No one knows exactly what is the reason for polycythemia vera (PV). Evidence points out that contains proteins known as Janus Keynes, or Jacques. JK proteins send signals which affect the production of blood cells in bone marrow. When JAKs send too many signals, they make bone marrow very many blood cells.

Researchers have determined that about 90 percent of people with polycythemia have a difference in JK2 genes. Genes give instructions for making proteins that play an important role in many body functions.

When a gene mutation occurs, then the protein product can be defective, incompetent, absent, or hyperbolic. Depending on the functions of special proteins, it can affect many organ systems of the body.

Polycythemia Vera

Diagnosis?

Physical examination conclusions are non-specific, but may include enlarged liver or spleen, abundance, or transpiration. Diagnosis is often suspected on the basis of laboratory tests. Normal findings include an elevated hemoglobin level and hematocrit, which shows the increasing number of red blood cells; Platelets count or white blood cell count can also be increased.

The zeta potential decreased due to an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Because polycythemia vera is the result of a necessary reduction in erythrocyte production, patients have fewer erythropoietin (EPO) levels.

If you have PV, then you will have the possibility of having high blood sugar and hemoglobin high-normal amount and unusually high hematocrit. You may also have unusual platelet count or white blood cell count.

If your CBC results are abnormal, then your doctor will probably check your blood for JAK2 mutation. Most people with PV conduct positive tests for this type of mutation.

Treatment?

The goal of treatment for polycythemia vera is to reduce the risk for the development of deep vein thrombosis. This risk is about 20% for those who are above 60 years of age or have a history of deep vein thrombosis.

Considering Hematocrit, the risk can be reduced, which is the ratio of blood blood cells to blood volume, below 45%. In order to reduce the number of blood cells, doctors can recommend phlebotomy, which is the process of removing blood from the veins.

1. Falobomy:

A process involving the removal of blood from the body, it can dilute the blood so that it can be flushed more easily.

2. Low-dose aspirin:

Can be given to reduce blood clotting risk

3. Medicines:

There is no medicine approved by the Food and Drug Administration specifically for the treatment of PV. However, some drugs approved for other diseases are used to cure signs and symptoms of this condition. They include platelet-reducing drugs such as hydroxyuria, agralide and interferon, which can be prescribed to reduce the risk of bleeding or complications of clotting.

4. Radiation:

To help in suppressing hyperactive bone marrow cells. This therapy helps in reducing the number of red blood cells and keeps blood flow and blood thickness closer to normal.

Therapy should be done separately in accordance with age, gender, medical conditions, clinical manifestations and hematological findings. However, the previous criteria used to stratify the treatment by high-or low-risk classification are probably not valid and are not recommended.

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